Standardized Discharge Antibiotics May Reduce Readmissions in Pediatric Perforated Appendicitis.

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Standardized Discharge Antibiotics May Reduce Readmissions in Pediatric Perforated Appendicitis.

J Surg Res. 2020 Jun 29;255:388-395

Authors: Ferguson DM, Parker TD, Arshad SA, Garcia EI, Hebballi NB, Tsao K

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Based on limited evidence, the American Pediatric Surgical Association recommends 5-7 d of postoperative antibiotics in perforated appendicitis for preventing intra-abdominal abscess (IAA). In 2015, our institutional clinical practice guideline was modified to standardize prescription for 7 additional days of oral antibiotics after discharge. We hypothesized that prescribing oral antibiotics after discharge would be associated with fewer complications in perforated appendicitis.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted of pediatric (younger than 18 y) patients who underwent laparoscopic appendectomy for perforated appendicitis (August 1, 2012-April 30, 2019). Patients diagnosed with IAA before discharge or with a postoperative length of stay ≥8 d were excluded. Patient outcomes were compared prestandardization and poststandardization of discharge antibiotics.
RESULTS: Of 617 patients, 212 (34.5%) were admitted prestandardization and 404 (65.5%) poststandardization. Overall, 409 patients (66.3%) received discharge antibiotics. The median total postoperative antibiotic duration was 4 d (interquartile range, 3-5) prestandardization versus 11 d (interquartile range, 10-12) poststandardization (P < 0.001). Prestandardization patients had a higher rate of IAA (8.9% versus 4.5%, P = 0.03) and were readmitted more frequently (13.1% versus 6.4%, P = 0.005). On adjusted analysis, admission poststandardization was associated with reduced odds of IAA (odds ratio, 0.51; 95% confidence interval, 0.25-1.06), but the relationship was imprecise. Admission poststandardization was significantly associated with reduced adjusted odds of readmission (odds ratio, 0.46; 95% confidence interval, 0.25-0.85).
CONCLUSIONS: Prescription for seven additional days of oral antibiotics after discharge was associated with reduced odds of readmission in pediatric perforated appendicitis. This population may benefit from a longer postoperative antibiotic course than currently recommended.

PMID: 32615311 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]