Standardized Treatment and Assessment Pathway Improves Mortality in Adults With Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia: STAPH Study

Open Forum Infect Dis. 2021 May 23;8(7):ofab261. doi: 10.1093/ofid/ofab261. eCollection 2021 Jul.


BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bloodstream infection (BSI) management remains challenging for clinicians. Numerous in vitro studies report synergy when vancomycin (VAN) and daptomycin (DAP) are combined with beta-lactams (BLs), which has led to clinical implementation of these combinations. While shorter durations of bacteremia have often been reported, there has been no significant impact on mortality.

METHODS: The Detroit Medical Center (DMC) developed and implemented a clinical pathway algorithm for MRSA BSI treatment in 2016 that included the early use of BL combination therapy with standard of care (VAN or DAP) and a mandatory Infectious Diseases consultation. This was a retrospective, quasi-experimental study at the DMC between 2013 and 2020. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the independent association between pathway implementation and 30-day mortality while adjusting for confounding variables.

RESULTS: Overall, 813 adult patients treated for MRSA BSI were evaluated. Compared with prepathway (PRE) patients (n = 379), those treated postpathway (POST; n = 434) had a significant reduction in 30-day and 90-day mortality: 9.7% in POST vs 15.6% in PRE (P = .011) and 12.2% in POST vs 19.0% in PRE (P = .007), respectively.The incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) was higher in the PRE compared with the POST group: 9.6% vs 7.2% (P = .282), respectively. After adjusting for confounding variables including Infectious Diseases consult, POST was independently associated with a reduction in 30-day mortality (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.608; 95% CI, 0.375-0.986).

CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of an MRSA BSI treatment pathway with early use of BL reduced mortality with no increased rate of AKI. Further prospective evaluation of this pathway approach is warranted.

PMID:34258313 | PMC:PMC8271135 | DOI:10.1093/ofid/ofab261