Sci Rep. 2021 Jul 5;11(1):13816. doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-92843-3.
Antibacterial potential of Limonene against Multi Drug Resistant (MDR) pathogens was studied and mechanism explored. Microscopic techniques viz. Fluorescent Microscopy (FM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) indicated membrane disruption, cellular leakage and cell death of Escherichia coli (E. coli) cells when treated with limonene. Leakage of intracellular proteins, lipids and nucleic acid confirmed membrane damage and disruption of cell permeability barrier. Further, release of intracellular ATP, also suggested disruption of membrane barrier. Interaction of limonene with DNA revealed its capability in unwinding of plasmid, which could eventually inhibit DNA transcription and translation. Differential expression of various proteins and enzymes involved in transport, respiration, metabolism, chemotaxis, protein synthesis confirmed the mechanistic role of limonene on their functions. Limonene thus can be a potential candidate in drug development.