J Family Med Prim Care. 2020 Dec 31;9(12):6171-6176. doi: 10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_1430_20. eCollection 2020 Dec.
INTRODUCTION: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the most frequent intensive care unit (ICU) acquired infection among patients receiving mechanical ventilation. Accurate clinical and microbiologic diagnosis of VAP is essential not only for selection of appropriate antimicrobials but also to prevent their misuse. As the organisms and their sensitivity pattern may differ in every ICU, the knowledge of the resident flora and their behaviour should be known for successful treatment.
METHODS: The study was conducted to evaluate the organisms responsible for VAP and their Antibiotic Sensitivity Pattern for the study setting. A prospective, open, epidemiological clinical study was performed in a tertiary care hospital in Nepal. 100 patients admitted to ICU and Mechanically Ventilated were evaluated about VAP. Clinical Pulmonary Infection Score (CPIS) was used to diagnose VAP.
RESULTS: Among 60 patients ventilated for more than 48 hours, 25 (41.6%) developed VAP. The VAP was caused predominantly by Klebsiella pneumonia in 34.5% of cases, followed by Acinetobacter calcoaceticus baumanni in 27.6%, Acinetobacter wolffi and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in 13.8% each and Escheresia coli in 10.3%. The most sensitive antibiotics were Colistin, followed by Polymyxin B and Amikacin with sensitivity rates of 67%, 60% and 58%, respectively.
CONCLUSION: Based on these results, an empiric approach to antibiotic treatment can be made tailored to the specific settings. Given the magnitude of drug resistance and its implicated financial and societal burden, there is an urgent need for broad implementation of Antibiotic Stewardship programs across all health care settings.