Successful management of pediatric pythium insidiosum keratitis with cyanoacrylate glue, linezolid, and azithromycin: Rare case report

Eur J Ophthalmol. 2021 Mar 28:11206721211006564. doi: 10.1177/11206721211006564. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Pythium insidiosum causes a rare sight-threatening keratitis and is a devastating ocular pathology with a high morbidity. It is frequently mistaken as fungal keratitis. Here we highlight a rare case of pediatric Pythium insidiosum keratitis which was successfully managed using an antibiotic combination of linezolid and azithromycin with cyanoacrylate glue.

CASE DESCRIPTION: A 9-year-old young male child presented to our clinic with defective vision, pain, redness in the right eye for 5 days post stick injury. In the right eye, Snellen's best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 6/12 which deteriorated to hand movements within 5 days of treatment. Ocular examination revealed 6 × 5 mm dry-looking mid stromal corneal infiltrate with feathery margin involving the visual axis. The clinical picture was suggestive of fungal keratitis. Corneal scraping and smear examination with 10% KOH and Gram stain revealed long slender hyaline hyphae with sparse septations. Before the culture result, the patient was started on 5% Natamycin and 1% Itraconazole hourly, but still, the infiltrate progressed. Further, P. Insidiosum keratitis was considered as the differential, which was confirmed on blood agar culture. After receiving culture results, the patient was managed with 0.2% Linezolid and 1% Azithromycin hourly. Due to the rapid progression of infiltrate, corneal melt, and younger age, cyanoacrylate glue, and bandage contact lens were used. On the last follow-up, the BCVA recovered to 6/12.

CONCLUSION AND IMPORTANCE: Prompt diagnosis, clinical awareness, and a specific treatment regime is needed for managing this devastating corneal entity. Cyanoacrylate glue due to its antibacterial properties can be a potential rescuer and can be considered for managing these cases.

PMID:33779337 | DOI:10.1177/11206721211006564