Ital J Pediatr. 2021 Feb 11;47(1):27. doi: 10.1186/s13052-020-00953-x.
BACKGROUND: Invasive fungal infection (IFI) is one of the most challenging complications in children undergoing acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) treatment, but acute fungal osteomyelitis (OM) is rarely encountered.
CASE PRESENTATION: Here, we describe a case of Candida tropicalis osteomyelitis in a 10-year-old patient with Philadelphia chromosome (Ph)-positive ALL. He was on remission induction therapy at the time of neutropenia, and an abscess developed in his right arm. The blood and bone cultures were positive for C. tropicalis. Antibiotics and antifungals were administered. Magnetic resonance imaging of the arm revealed an intraosseous abscess, suggestive of OM. Surgical irrigation and debridement of the bone were performed immediately. The patient was effectively treated with antifungal therapy and ALL treatment. He has fully recovered into complete clinical remission but with visible sequelae on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). He took oral posaconazole for consolidation until disappearance of the lesion shadows on MRI and received subsequent cycles of chemotherapy in parallel.
CONCLUSIONS: In the successful management of Ph-positive ALL, dasatinib, a second-generation Abl-tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is crucial. The recommended treatment for Candida osteomyelitis in Ph-positive ALL patients is a fungicidal agent combined with surgery and modification chemotherapy with dasatinib. The use of combined modalities of treatment seems to be crucial in the successful management of Ph-positive ALL.