JAC Antimicrob Resist. 2020 Oct 5;2(3):dlaa070. doi: 10.1093/jacamr/dlaa070. eCollection 2020 Sep.
BACKGROUND: The Scottish Antimicrobial Prescribing Group is supporting two hospitals in Ghana to develop antimicrobial stewardship. Early intelligence gathering suggested that surgical prophylaxis was suboptimal. We reviewed the evidence for use of surgical prophylaxis to prevent surgical site infections (SSIs) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) to inform this work.
METHODS: MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane, CINAHL and Google Scholar were searched from inception to 17 February 2020 for trials, audits, guidelines and systematic reviews in English. Grey literature, websites and reference lists of included studies were searched. Randomized clinical trials reporting incidence of SSI following Caesarean section were included in two meta-analyses. Narrative analysis of studies that explored behaviours and attitudes was conducted.
RESULTS: This review included 51 studies related to SSI and timing of antibiotic prophylaxis in LMICs. Incidence of SSI is higher in LMICs, infection surveillance data are poor and there is a lack of local guidelines for antibiotic prophylaxis. Education to improve appropriate antibiotic prophylaxis is associated with reduction of SSI in LMICs. The random-effects pooled mean risk ratio of SSI in Caesarean section was 0.77 (95% CI: 0.51-1.17) for pre-incision versus post-incision prophylaxis and 0.89 (95% CI: 0.55-1.14) for short versus long duration. Reduction in cost and nurse time was reported in shorter-duration surgical antibiotic prophylaxis.
CONCLUSIONS: There is scope for improvement, but interventions must include local context and address strongly held beliefs. Establishment of local multidisciplinary teams will promote ownership and sustainability of change.