Surveillance for Healthcare-Associated Infections: Hospital-Onset Adult Sepsis Events versus Current Reportable Conditions

Clin Infect Dis. 2021 Mar 29:ciab217. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciab217. Online ahead of print.


BACKGROUND: U.S. hospitals are required by CMS to publicly report CLABSI, CAUTI, C.diffficile, MRSA bacteremia, and selected SSIs for benchmarking and pay-for-performance programs. It is unclear, however, to what extent these conditions capture the full breadth of serious healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). CDC's hospital-onset Adult Sepsis Event (HO-ASE) definition could facilitate more comprehensive and efficient surveillance for serious HAIs, but the overlap between HO-ASE and currently reportable HAIs is unknown.

METHODS: We retrospectively assessed the overlap between HO-ASEs and reportable HAIs among adults hospitalized between June 2015-June 2018 in 3 hospitals. Medical record reviews were conducted for 110 randomly selected HO-ASE cases to determine clinical correlates.

RESULTS: Amongst 282,441 hospitalized patients, 2,301 (0.8%) met HO-ASE criteria and 1,260 (0.4%) had reportable HAIs. In-hospital mortality rates were higher with HO-ASEs than reportable HAIs (28.6% vs 12.9%). Mortality rates for HO-ASE missed by reportable HAIs were substantially higher than mortality rates for reportable HAIs missed by HO-ASE (28.1% vs 6.3%). Reportable HAIs were only present in 334/2,301 (14.5%) HO-ASEs, most commonly CLABSIs (6.0% of HO-ASEs), C.difficile (5.0%), and CAUTI (3.0%). On medical record review, most HO-ASEs were caused by pneumonia (39.1%, of which only 34.9% were ventilator-associated), bloodstream infections (17.4%, of which only 10.5% were central line-associated), non-C.difficile intra-abdominal infections (14.5%), urinary infections (7.3%, of which 87.5% were catheter-associated), and skin/soft tissue infections (6.4%).

CONCLUSIONS: CDC's HO-ASE definition detects many serious nosocomial infections missed by currently reportable HAIs. HO-ASE surveillance could increase the efficiency and clinical significance of surveillance while identifying new targets for prevention.

PMID:33780544 | DOI:10.1093/cid/ciab217