Surveillance of Nosocomial Infections in a Bulgarian Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

Folia Med (Plovdiv). 2020 Dec 31;62(4):753-761. doi: 10.3897/folmed.62.e50437.

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Nosocomial infections (NI) are frequent complications in neonatal intensive care units (NICU) which result in high morbidity and mortality.

AIM: To determine and analyze the incidence, risk factors and etiologic agents of NI in newborns admitted in the NICU to help plan-ning future surveillance and prevention strategies.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective cohort study was carried out at the NICU of St George University Hospital, Plovdiv, Bul-garia from January 1, 2017 to June 31, 2018. The number of neonates included in the study was 507. Descriptive statistics such as count, percent, mean and standard deviation was used. Chi-square test was performed to prove associations. Odds ratios, with 95% confidence intervals, were computed from the results of the binominal logistic regression analyses.

RESULTS: Of the 507 hospitalized newborns in NICU, 48 presented with 54 NI. The incidence and the density incidence rates were 9.5% and 7.67 per 1,000 patient-days, respectively. Nosocomial infections were detected in neonates from all birth weight (BW) classes, but it was low BW and premature neonates that were at major risk to acquire them. The most common infection sites were ventilator-asso-ciated pneumonia (VAP) (67.27%), bloodstream infection (23.64%) and conjunctivitis (9.09%). Major pathogens were Gram-negative such as Klebsiella pneumoniae, E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis NIs were strongly associated with intubation, presence of a venous catheter, the duration of antibiotic treatment and increased CRP> 10 mg/l.

CONCLUSIONS: This report highlights the burden of NIs, identifies the major focus for future NI control and prevention programs.

PMID:33415917 | DOI:10.3897/folmed.62.e50437