Transpl Infect Dis. 2021 Jan 15:e13568. doi: 10.1111/tid.13568. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a rare but highly lethal complication after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Targeted antifungal prophylaxis has been proposed as a strategy to prevent IA among orthotopic liver transplant recipient (OLTr), but limited data are available to support its efficacy.
METHOD: We conducted a single-center, retrospective, before and after cohort study, comparing IA incidences among OLTr who did not receive antifungal prophylaxis after transplantation (cohort 1) to OLTr who received targeted antifungal prophylaxis after liver transplantation (cohort 2). Patients in cohort 2 received caspofungin prophylaxis if they presented one of the following risk factors: retransplantation, acute liver failure, dialysis, or Aspergillus colonization prior to transplantation. The primary outcome was IA at 90 days after transplantation.
RESULTS: A total of 391 OLTr were included in the study; 181 patients in the cohort 1 (no prophylaxis) and 210 patients in the cohort 2 (targeted prophylaxis). Among patients in cohort 2, 19% (40/ 210) were considered at high risk for IA and 85% (34/40) of those received caspofungin prophylaxis. The incidence of IA at 90 days was 3.3% (6/ 181) and 0.5% (1/ 210), in cohort 1 and 2, respectively (OR 0.14; 95%CI 0.01-0.83; P = .03). Ninety-day mortality was similar among the two cohorts (3.9% (7/181) and 2.4% (5/210) in cohort 1 and 2, respectively (OR 0.61; 95% 0.18-1.93; P = .40)). The 90-day mortality among the OLTs with IA was 71% (5/7).
CONCLUSION: Targeted caspofungin prophylaxis was associated with lower rate of IA.