Taxonomy, virulence determinants and antimicrobial susceptibility of Aeromonas spp. isolated from bacteremia in southeastern China

Antimicrob Resist Infect Control. 2021 Feb 27;10(1):43. doi: 10.1186/s13756-021-00911-0.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The study aimed to elucidate the species taxonomy, clinical manifestations, virulence gene profiles and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Aeromonas strains isolated from life-threatening bacteremia in southeastern China.

METHODS: Clinical samples of Aeromonas causing bacteremia were isolated from a teaching hospital in Wenzhou from 2013 to 2018 and a retrospective cohort study was performed. Aeromonas strains were identified at species level by housekeeping gene gyrB. Virulence and drug resistance-associated genes were screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) was performed by the VITEK 2 Compact system.

RESULTS: A total of 58 Aeromonas isolated from patients with bacteremia were collected during 6 years (2013-2018). 58 isolates were identified to five different species, where Aeromonas dhakensis appeared to be the predominant species (26/58), followed by Aeromonas veronii (13/58), Aeromonas caviae (10/58), Aeromonas hydrophila (7/58) and Aeromonas jandaei (2/58). 16 of 58 patients had poor prognosis. Poor prognosis was significantly associated with liver cirrhosis and inappropriate empirical antimicrobials therapy. The progression of bacteremia caused by Aeromonas was extremely fast, especially in A. dhakensis infections. Virulence genes aer, lip, hlyA, alt, ast, and act, were detected at ratios of 24.1% (14/58), 62.1% (36/58), 65.5% (38/58), 58.6% (34/58), 15.5% (9/58) and 65.5% (38/58), respectively. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing exhibited that 9 out of 58 isolates were identified as multi-drug resistant (MDR) organism. The blaTEM gene was identified in all 9 MDR isolates. blaSHV, blaAQU-1, blaMOX, blaCepH, blaCphA and aac(6')-Ib-cr were detected in 4 isolates, 2 isolates, 1 isolate, 3 isolates, 8 isolates, and 3 isolates, respectively. The majority of Aeromonas strains maintained susceptible to 3rd generation cephalosporins, aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones and furantoin.

CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence and dangerousness of Aeromonas infections, especially A. dhakensis, are underestimated in clinic. Continuous monitoring is essential to keep track of MDR Aeromonas due to the increasing prevalence recently and a more effective measure is required to control the spread of resistance determinants.

PMID:33640019 | DOI:10.1186/s13756-021-00911-0