Temporal and Geographic Variation in Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Resistance Patterns of Enterococci: Results From the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program, 1997-2016.
Open Forum Infect Dis. 2019 Mar;6(Suppl 1):S54-S62
Authors: Pfaller MA, Cormican M, Flamm RK, Mendes RE, Jones RN
Background: The SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program was established in 1997 and presently encompasses more than 750 000 bacterial isolates from over 400 medical centers worldwide. Among these pathogens, enterococci represents a prominent cause of bloodstream (BSIs), intra-abdominal (IAIs), skin and skin structure, and urinary tract infections (UTIs). In the present study, we reviewed geographic and temporal trends in Enterococcus species and resistant phenotypes identified throughout the SENTRY Program.
Methods: From 1997 to 2016, a total of 49 491 clinically significant enterococci isolates (15 species) were submitted from 298 medical centers representing the Asia-Pacific (APAC), European, Latin American (LATAM), and North American (NA) regions. Bacteria were identified by standard algorithms and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. Susceptibility (S) testing was performed by reference broth microdilution methods and interpreted using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute/US Food and Drug Administration and European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing criteria.
Results: The most common Enterococcus species in all 4 regions were Enterococcus faecalis (64.7%) and E. faecium (EFM; 29.0%). Enterococci accounted for 10.7% of BSIs in NA and was most prominent as a cause of IAIs (24.0%) in APAC and of UTIs (19.8%) in LATAM. A steady decrease in the susceptibility to ampicillin and vancomycin was observed in all regions over the 20-year interval. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) accounted for more than 8% of enterococcal isolates in all regions and was most common in NA (21.6%). Among the 7615 VRE isolates detected, 89.1% were the VanA phenotype (91.0% EFM) and 10.9% were VanB. Several newer antimicrobial agents demonstrated promising activity against VRE, including daptomycin (99.6-100.0% S), linezolid (98.0%-99.6% S), oritavancin (92.2%-98.3% S), tedizolid (99.5%-100.0% S), and tigecycline (99.4%-100.0% S).
Conclusions: Enterococci remained a prominent gram-positive pathogen in the SENTRY Program from 1997 through 2016. The overall frequency of VRE was 15.4% and increased over time in all monitored regions. Newly released agents with novel mechanisms of action show promising activity against VRE.
PMID: 30895215 [PubMed]