Biomedicines. 2021 Feb 20;9(2):218. doi: 10.3390/biomedicines9020218.
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) represent a serious global health issue, especially due to emerging multidrug-resistant UTI-causing bacteria. Recently, we showed that the human amniotic membrane (hAM) could be a candidate for treatments and prevention of UPEC and Staphylococcus aureus infections. However, its role against multidrug-resistant bacteria, namely methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE), carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa has not yet been thoroughly explored. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that the hAM homogenate had antibacterial activity against 7 out of 11 tested multidrug-resistant strains, the greatest effect was on MRSA. Using novel approaches, its activity against MRSA was further evaluated in a complex microenvironment of normal and cancerous urinary bladder urothelia. Even short-term incubation in hAM homogenate significantly decreased the number of bacteria in MRSA-infected urothelial models, while it did not affect the viability, number, and ultrastructure of urothelial cells. The hAM patches had no antibacterial activity against any of the tested strains, which further exposes the importance of the hAM preparation. Our study substantially contributes to basic knowledge on the antibacterial activity of hAM and reveals its potential to be used as an antibacterial agent against multidrug-resistant bacteria.