Microb Drug Resist. 2021 Apr 28. doi: 10.1089/mdr.2020.0505. Online ahead of print.
Escherichia coli ST131 is one of the high-risk multidrug-resistant clones with a global distribution and the ability to persist and colonize in a variety of niches. Carbapenemase-producing E. coli ST131 strains with the ability to resist last-line antibiotics (i.e., colistin) have been recently considered a significant public health. Colistin is widely used in veterinary medicine and therefore, colistin-resistant bacteria can be transmitted from livestock to humans through food. There are several mechanisms of resistance to colistin, which include chromosomal mutations and plasmid-transmitted mcr genes. E. coli ST131 is a great model organism to investigate the emergence of superbugs. This microorganism has the ability to cause intestinal and extraintestinal infections, and its accurate identification as well as its antibiotic resistance patterns are vitally important for a successful treatment strategy. Therefore, further studies are required to understand the evolution of this resistant organism for drug design, controlling the evolution of other nascent emerging pathogens, and developing antibiotic stewardship programs. In this review, we will discuss the importance of E. coli ST131, the mechanisms of resistance to colistin as the last-resort antibiotic against resistant Gram-negative bacteria, reports from different regions regarding E. coli ST131 resistance to colistin, and the most recent therapeutic approaches against colistin-resistance bacteria.