The Challenging Diagnosis of Non-Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Non-Mechanically Ventilated Subjects: Value of Microbiological Investigation.

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The Challenging Diagnosis of Non-Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Non-Mechanically Ventilated Subjects: Value of Microbiological Investigation.

Respir Care. 2015 Dec 8;

Authors: Messika J, Stoclin A, Bouvard E, Fulgencio JP, Ridel C, Muresan IP, Boffa JJ, Bachmeyer C, Denis M, Gounant V, Esteso A, Loi V, Verdet C, Prigent H, Parrot A, Fartoukh M

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Early recognition and an attempt at obtaining microbiological documentation are recommended in patients with non-community-acquired pneumonia (NCAP), whether hospital-acquired (HAP) or health care-associated (HCAP). We aimed to characterize the clinical features and microbial etiologies of NCAP to assess the impact of microbiological investigation on their management.
METHODS: This was a prospective 1-y study in a university hospital with 141 non-mechanically ventilated subjects suspected of having HAP (n = 110) or HCAP (n = 31).
RESULTS: Clinical criteria alone poorly identified pneumonia (misdiagnosis in 50% of cases). Microbiological confirmation was achievable in 80 subjects (57%). Among 79 microorganisms isolated, 28 were multidrug-resistant aerobic Gram-negative bacilli and group III Enterobacteriaceae and 6 were methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Multidrug-resistant aerobic Gram-negative bacilli accounted for one third of the microorganisms in early-onset HAP and for 50% in late-onset HAP. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus was most often recovered from subjects with HCAP. Inappropriate empirical antibiotics were administered to 36% of subjects with confirmed pneumonia. Forty subjects were admitted to the ICU, 13 (33%) of whom died. Overall, 39 subjects (28%) died in the hospital.
CONCLUSIONS: Integrating the microbiological investigation in the complex clinical diagnostic workup of patients suspected of having NCAP is mandatory. Respiratory tract specimens should be obtained whenever possible for appropriate management.

PMID: 26647452 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]