The Emergence, Persistence, and Dissemination of Antimicrobial-Resistant Bacteria in Environmental Hajj Settings and Implications for Public Health

Trop Med Infect Dis. 2021 Mar 10;6(1):33. doi: 10.3390/tropicalmed6010033.


The emergence of antimicrobial resistance is causing the loss of what was once considered the miracle cure. The transmission of antimicrobial resistance during mass gathering is a potential threat in addition to other infectious diseases. Here, we review the English language literature on the rate and the acquisition of antimicrobial resistance during the Hajj. There is a variable incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Enterobacteriaceae. There had been no report of multi-drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Continued surveillance of antimicrobial resistance coupled with public health measures are needed to decrease the rate of emergence of resistance.

PMID:33802167 | DOI:10.3390/tropicalmed6010033