The Global Prevalence of Daptomycin, Tigecycline, and Linezolid-Resistant Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium Strains From Human Clinical Samples: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Front Med (Lausanne). 2021 Sep 10;8:720647. doi: 10.3389/fmed.2021.720647. eCollection 2021.


Background and Aim: The predominant species of the Enterococcus, Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) and Enterococcus faecium (E. faecium) cause great variety of infections. Therefore, the expansion of antimicrobial resistance in the Enterococcus is one of the most important global concerns. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of resistance to linezolid, tigecycline, and daptomycin among enterococcal strains isolated from human clinical specimens worldwide. Methods: Several databases including Web of Science, EMBASE, and Medline (via PubMed), were carefully searched and reviewed for original research articles available in databases and published between 2000 and 2020. A total of 114 studies worldwide that address E. faecalis and E. faecium resistance to linezolid, tigecycline, and daptomycin were analyzed by STATA software. Results: The overall prevalence of antibiotic-resistant E. faecalis and E. faecium was reported to be 0.9 and 0.6%, respectively. E. faecalis and E. faecium were more resistant to the linezolid (2.2%) and daptomycin (9%), respectively. The prevalence of tigecyline-resistant E. facium (1%) strains was higher than E. faecalis strains (0.3%). Accordingly, the prevalence of linezolid-resistant E. faecalis was higher in Asia (2.8%), while linezolid-resistant E. faecium was higher in the America (3.4%). Regarding tigecycline-resistance, a higher prevalence of E. faecalis (0.4%) and E. faecium (3.9%) was reported in Europe. Conclusion: In conclusion, this meta-analysis shows that there is an emerging resistance in Enterococcus strains. Despite the rising resistance of enterococci to antibiotics, our results demonstrate that tigecycline, daptomycin, and linezolid can still be used for the treatment of enterococcal infections worldwide.

PMID:34568377 | PMC:PMC8460910 | DOI:10.3389/fmed.2021.720647