J Pathog. 2021 Mar 29;2021:6692827. doi: 10.1155/2021/6692827. eCollection 2021.
OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to describe the pattern of causative microorganisms, drug susceptibility, risk factors of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infection, and clinical impact of these organisms on pediatric oncology patients with febrile neutropenia.
METHODS: A retrospective descriptive study of oncologic patients aged less than 15 years who were diagnosed with febrile neutropenia in King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital was conducted between January 2013 to December 2017. Characteristics and clinical outcomes of febrile neutropenia episodes, causative pathogens, and their antibiotic susceptibilities were recorded.
RESULT: This study included 267 patients with 563 febrile neutropenia episodes. The median (range) age was 5.1 years (1 month-15 years). The most common underlying disease was acute lymphoblastic leukemia (42.7%). Of 563 febrile episodes, there were 192 (34.1%) with microbiologically documented infection. Among these 192 episodes of microbiologically documented infection, there were 214 causative pathogens: 154 bacteria (72%), 32 viruses (15%), 27 fungus (12.6%), and 1 Mycobacterium tuberculosis (0.4%). Gram-negative bacteria (48.6%) accounted for most of the causative pathogens. Twenty-three percent of them were multidrug resistant, and 18% were carbapenem resistant. Among Gram-positive bacterial infection which accounted for 23.4% of all specimens, the proportion of MRSA was 20%. The 2-week mortality rate was 3.7%. Drug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infection caused significant adverse events and mortality compared to nonresistant bacterial infection (p < 0.05).
CONCLUSION: There is high rate of drug-resistant organism infection in pediatric oncology patients in a tertiary-care center in Thailand. Infection with drug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infection was associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Continuous surveillance for the pattern of drug-resistant infections is crucial.