The phenotypical implications of immune dysregulation in fragile X syndrome.
Eur J Neurol. 2019 Dec 26;:
Authors: Yu KH, Palmer N, Fox K, Prock L, Mandl KD, Kohane IS, Prilutsky D
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Immune system dysfunction and inflammatory dysregulation have been shown in several animal models of fragile X syndrome (FXS). However, the phenotypical implications of this dysregulation have not been systematically evaluated in a large patient cohort.
METHODS: Five thousand seven hundred thirty-six FXS patients from a nationwide health insurance database were identified and compared to 573 600 age- and sex-matched controls. The phenome-wide association studies codes of FXS patients and those without FXS were compared and the false discovery rate was controlled at 0.05 using the Benjamini-Hochberg procedure.
RESULTS: In addition to the commonly reported comorbidities of FXS, an over-representation of infectious diseases, including otitis media, cellulitis and abscess of fingers or toes, viral enteritis, candidiasis and pneumonia, was discovered. In addition, there was an under-representation of autoimmune disorders in FXS patients.
CONCLUSIONS: Our systematic comorbidity analyses identified immunologically-based phenotypes associated with FXS. Our findings align with previous observations of compromised immunity and phagocytic defects in animal models of FXS. These results suggest the importance of immune-related pathways in FXS patients and their relevance to the FMR1 gene.
PMID: 31953887 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]