Gut Microbes. 2021 Jan-Dec;13(1):1-13. doi: 10.1080/19490976.2021.1911279.
About 100 years ago, the first antibiotic drug was introduced into health care. Since then, antibiotics have made an outstanding impact on human medicine. However, our society increasingly suffers from collateral damage exerted by these highly effective drugs. The rise of resistant pathogen strains, combined with a reduction of microbiota diversity upon antibiotic treatment, has become a significant obstacle in the fight against invasive infections worldwide.Alternative and complementary strategies to classical "Fleming antibiotics" comprise microbiota-based treatments such as fecal microbiota transfer and administration of probiotics, live-biotherapeutics, prebiotics, and postbiotics. Other promising interventions, whose efficacy may also be influenced by the human microbiota, are phages and vaccines. They will facilitate antimicrobial stewardship, to date the only globally applied antibiotic resistance mitigation strategy.In this review, we present the available evidence on these nontraditional interventions, highlight their interaction with the human microbiota, and discuss their clinical applicability.