The safety of ceftolozane-tazobactam for the treatment of acute bacterial infections: a systemic review and meta-analysis

Ther Adv Drug Saf. 2021 Jul 15;12:20420986211027096. doi: 10.1177/20420986211027096. eCollection 2021.

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis to assess the clinical safety of ceftolozane-tazobactam for the treatment of acute bacterial infections in adult patients.

METHODS: The PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases were searched from their inception until May 2020 for relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Only RCTs evaluating the risk of adverse events (AEs) for ceftolozane-tazobactam and comparative treatments for acute bacterial infections in adult patients were included.

RESULTS: Overall, four RCTs including a total of 2924 patients (1475 in the ceftolozane-tazobactam group and 1449 in the control group) were included in the meta-analysis. The rate of treatment-emergent AEs was 51.3% (748/1458) in the ceftolozane-tazobactam group, which was comparable to the control group, 49.9% [714/1430; odd's ratio (OR), 1.06; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.91-1.25; I 2 = 0%]. In addition, no difference was observed between the ceftolozane-tazobactam and control groups in terms of the risk of serious AEs (OR, 1.22; 95% CI, 0.93-1.61; I 2 = 15.5%) and the risk of discontinuing the study drug due to AEs (OR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.55-1.33; I 2 = 0%). The rate of all-cause mortality did not significantly differ between the ceftolozane-tazobactam and control groups (OR, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.82-1.50; I 2 = 0%). The only exception was the risk of Clostridiodes difficile (C. difficile) colitis, where ceftolozane-tazobactam treatment was associated with a significantly higher risk compared with the control group [0.72% (10/1376) versus 0.14% (2/1391), OR, 3.84; 95% CI, 1.23-11.97; I 2 = 0%].

CONCLUSION: Ceftolozane-tazobactam treatment is as tolerable as comparative treatment options for acute bacterial infections in adult patients, however it has an increased risk of C. difficile infection. As a novel broad-spectrum antibiotic, ceftolozane-tazobactam could be a safe therapeutic option for use in common clinical practice.

PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY: The safety of ceftolozane-tazobactam (an antibiotics) for the treatment of acute bacterial infections Objective(s): Ceftolozane-tazobactam is an effective antibiotic for the treatment of acute bacterial infections. This study conducts a meta-analysis to assess the clinical safety (side effects) of ceftolozane-tazobactam for the treatment of acute bacterial infections in adult patients compared with other drugs. Methods: We extracted data from four randomized controlled trials, including a total of 2924 patients (1475 in the ceftolozane-tazobactam group and 1449 in the control group). Results: The rate of treatment related adverse events (AEs) was similar in the ceftolozane-tazobactam group (51.3%) and control group (49.9%). There was also no difference in risk of serious adverse events, the risk of discontinuing the study drug due to AEs, and all-cause mortality. The only exception was the risk of Clostridiodes difficile colitis (a cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea), where ceftolozane-tazobactam treatment was associated with a significantly higher risk compared with the control group. Conclusion: In conclusion, as a novel broad-spectrum antibiotic, ceftolozane-tazobactam could be a safe therapeutic option for use in clinical practice.

PMID:34349976 | PMC:PMC8290504 | DOI:10.1177/20420986211027096