Eur J Dermatol. 2021 Mar 1. doi: 10.1684/ejd.2021.3967. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: Organ transplant recipients (OTR) are at marked increased risk of skin cancer and skin infections compared to the general population.
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to acquire long-term incidence data on commonly occurring skin diseases in four different transplant groups.
MATERIALS & METHODS: This retrospective single-centre cohort study included 621 OTR. By counting defined malignant, inflammatory, infectious or drug-related skin conditions per patient and visit, incidence rates (IR) for the different groups of OTR were calculated as cases per 1000-patient years and cumulative incidences of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), respectively.
RESULTS: Overall, 2,309 non-malignant skin conditions and 340 NMSC were registered. Skin infections were most common (51.4%), followed by inflammatory skin conditions (35.6%) and sun-induced skin damage (32.9%). Kidney transplant recipients (KTR) had a 4.7-fold (95% CI: 2.7-8.0; p < 0.0001), 2.6-fold (95% CI: 1.2-5.3; p = 0.0098) and 5.4-fold (95% CI: 2.8-10.3; - < 0.0001) higher IR for oral candidiasis, oral aphthosis and herpes simplex virus infections, respectively, compared to the other OTR. Pruritus was most commonly reported in liver transplant recipients (95% CI: 1.3-5.3; p = 0.0047). KTR and lung transplant recipients (LuTR) had a 10.7-fold (95% CI:3.6-43.2; p < 0.0001) higher IR of steroid induced acne. KTR had a 1.6-fold (95% CI: 1.1-2.3; p = 0.0096) higher IR of squamous cell carcinoma compared to the other groups. The incidence of basal cell carcinoma was 2.5-fold higher (95% CI: 1.7-3.6; p < 0.0001) in LuTR, compared to the other OTR.
CONCLUSIONS: This study provides additional organ-specific incidence data on non-malignant skin diseases and skin cancer in OTR.