Infect Drug Resist. 2021 Jan 18;14:125-142. doi: 10.2147/IDR.S246174. eCollection 2021.
The spread of metallo-β-lactamase (MBL)-producing Enterobacterales worldwide without the simultaneous increase in active antibiotics makes these organisms an urgent public health threat. This review summarizes recent advancements in diagnostic and treatment strategies for infections caused by MBL-producing Enterobacterales. Adequate treatment of patients infected with MBL-producing Enterobacterales relies on detection of the β-lactamase in the clinic. There are several molecular platforms that are currently available to identify clinically relevant MBLs as well as other important serine-β-lactamases. Once detected, there are several antibiotics that have historically been used for the treatment of MBL-producing Enterobacterales. Antimicrobials such as aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, fosfomycin, and polymyxins often show promising in vitro activity though clinical data are currently lacking to support their widespread use. Ceftazidime-avibactam combined with aztreonam is promising for treatment of infections caused by MBL-producing Enterobacterales and currently has the most clinical data of any available antibiotic to support its use. While cefiderocol has displayed promising activity against MBL-producing Enterobacterales in vitro and in preliminary clinical studies, further clinical studies will better shed light on its place in treatment. Lastly, there are several promising MBL inhibitors in the pipeline, which may further improve the treatment of MBL-producing Enterobacterales.