Curr Drug Res Rev. 2021 Feb 26. doi: 10.2174/2589977513666210226123920. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: The recent treatment challenges posed by the widespread emergence of pathogenic Multidrug-Resistant (MDR) bacterial strains are a cause of huge health troubles worldwide. Infections caused by MDR organisms are associated with longer period of hospitalization, increased mortality, and inflated healthcare costs. Staphylococcus aureus is one of these MDR organisms identified as an urgent threat to human health by the World Health Organization. Infections caused by S. aureus may range from simple cutaneous infestations to life threatening bacteremia. S. aureus infections get easily escalated in severely ill, hospitalized and or immunocompromised patients with incapacitated immune system. Also, in HIV-positive patients S. aureus ranks amongst one of the most common comorbidities where it can further worsen a patient's health condition. At present anti-staphylococcal therapy is reliant typically on chemotherapeutics that are gathering resistance and pose unfavorable side-effects. Thus, newer drugs are required that can bridge these shortcomings and aid effective control against S. aureus.
OBJECTIVE: In this review, we summarize drug resistance exhibited by S. aureus and lacunae in current anti-staphylococcal therapy, nanoparticles as an alternative therapeutic modality. The focus lays on various green synthesized nanoparticles, their mode of action and application as potent antibacterial compounds against S. aureus.
CONCLUSION: Use of nanoparticles as anti-bacterial drugs has gained momentum in recent past and green synthesized nanoparticles, which involves microorganisms and plants or their byproducts for synthesis of nanoparticles offer a potent, as well as environment friendly solution in warfare against MDR bacte.