J Glob Antimicrob Resist. 2021 Mar 18:S2213-7165(21)00064-3. doi: 10.1016/j.jgar.2021.02.031. Online ahead of print.
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate third-generation cephalosporin (3GC) resistance determinants [extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), AmpC β-lactamases and OXA-type β-lactamases] in contemporary clinical Enterobacterales isolates and to determine the in vitro activity of β-lactams and β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor combinations, including the investigational combination of cefepime and the novel β-lactamase inhibitor enmetazobactam.
METHODS: Antibacterial susceptibility of 7168 clinical Enterobacterales isolates obtained between 2016-2018 from North America and Europe was determined according to CLSI guidelines. Phenotypic resistance to the 3GC ceftazidime (MIC ≥ 16 μg/mL) and/or ceftriaxone (MIC ≥ 4 μg/mL) but retaining susceptibility to meropenem (MIC ≤ 1 μg/mL) was determined. β-Lactamase genotyping was performed on clinical isolates with ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, cefepime or meropenem MIC ≥ 1 μg/mL.
RESULTS: Phenotypic resistance to 3GCs occurred in 17.5% of tested isolates, whereas 2.1% of isolates were resistant to the carbapenem meropenem. Within the 3GC-resistant subgroup, 60.1% (n = 752) of isolates encoded an ESBL, 25.6% (n = 321) encoded an AmpC-type β-lactamase and 0.9% (n = 11) encoded an OXA-type β-lactamase. Susceptibility of the subgroup to piperacillin/tazobactam (57.5%) and ceftolozane/tazobactam (71.3%) was <90% based on breakpoints established by the CLSI. Projected susceptibility to cefepime/enmetazobactam was 99.6% when applying the cefepime susceptible, dose-dependent breakpoint of 8 μg/mL. Against ESBL-producing isolates (n = 801) confirmed by genotyping, only susceptibility to meropenem (96.0%) and cefepime/enmetazobactam (99.9%) exceeded 90%.
CONCLUSION: This study describes the antibacterial activity of important therapies against contemporary 3GC-resistant clinical Enterobacterales isolates and supports the development of cefepime/enmetazobactam as a carbapenem-sparing option for ESBL-producing pathogens.