Surg Infect (Larchmt). 2021 Jan 13. doi: 10.1089/sur.2020.306. Online ahead of print.
Background: We aimed to assess independent risk factors for inadequate initial antimicrobial treatment (IAT) in critically ill patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) treated in intensive care units (ICU) and to determine whether IAT is associated with adverse outcomes in patients with VAP. Patients and Methods: A prospective cohort study was performed and included 152 patients with VAP treated in an ICU for more than 48 hours. The main outcomes of interest were all-cause ICU mortality and VAP-related mortality. Other outcomes considered were: intra-hospital mortality, VAP-related mortality, VAP-related sepsis, relapse, re-infection, length of stay in ICU (ICU LOS), and number of days on mechanical ventilation (MV). Results: One-third of patients (35.5%) received inadequate antimicrobial therapy. Trauma (odds ratio [OR], 3.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.25-10.06) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) causative agent (OR, 3.09; 95% CI, 1.23-7.74) were independently associated with inadequate IAT. Inadequate IAT was associated with a higher mortality rate (OR, 3.08; 95% CI, 1.30-7.26), VAP-related sepsis (OR, 2.39; 95% CI, 1.07-5.32), relapse (OR, 3.25; 95% CI, 1.34-7.89), re-infection (OR, 6.06; 95% CI, 2.48-14.77), and ICU LOS (β 4.65; 95% CI, 0.93-8.36). Acinetobacter spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella/Enterobacter spp. were the most common bacteria in patients with IAT and those with adequate antimicrobial therapy. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that inadequate IAT is associated with a higher risk of the majority of adverse outcomes in patients with VAP treated in ICUs. Trauma and XDR strains of bacteria are independent predictors of inadequate IAT of VAP in critically ill patients.