Transpl Infect Dis. 2020 Nov 20. doi: 10.1111/tid.13510. Online ahead of print.
Infections caused by carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) are an emerging threat in both solid organ and stem cell transplant recipients. Invasive CPE infections in transplant recipients are associated with a high mortality, often due to limited therapeutic options and antibacterial toxicities. One of the most therapeutically challenging group of CPE are the metallo-β-lactamase (MBL)-producing Gram-negative bacteria, which are now found worldwide, and often need treatment with older, highly toxic antimicrobial regimens. Newer β-lactamase inhibitors such as avibactam have well-established activity against certain carbapenemases such as Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPC), but have no activity against MBL-producing organisms. Conversely, aztreonam has activity against MBL-producing organisms but is often inactivated by other co-existing β-lactamases. Here, we report four cases of invasive MBL-CPE infections in transplant recipients caused by IMP-4-producing Enterobacter cloacae who were successfully treated with a new, mechanism-driven antimicrobial combination of ceftazidime/avibactam with aztreonam. This novel antimicrobial combination offers a useful treatment option for high-risk patients with CPE infection, with reduced drug interactions and toxicity.