Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2021 Apr 1;25(4):292-298. doi: 10.5588/ijtld.20.0887.
BACKGROUND: Brazil ranks 14th worldwide in the number of TB cases and 19th in terms of TB-HIV co-infected cases. This study aims at identifying clinical and demographic factors associated with unsuccessful treatment outcomes (loss to follow-up, treatment failure and death) of HIV-positive patients with multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of MDR-TB cases notified from 2000 to 2016 in RJ. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to assess risk factors associated with unsuccessful treatment in HIV-positive patients with MDR-TB.RESULTS: Among 2,269 patients, 156 (6.9%) were HIV-positive and had a higher proportion of unsuccessful treatment outcomes (52.6%) than HIV-negative cases (43.7%). All HIV-positive cases with extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) had unsuccessful treatment outcomes. Multivariate analysis shows that previous MDR-TB treatment (HR 1.97, 95% CI 1.22-3.18) and illicit drugs use (HR 1.68, 95% CI 1.01-2.78) were associated with a greater hazard of unsuccessful treatment outcomes, while 6-month culture conversion (HR 0.48, 95% CI 0.27-0.84) and use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) (HR 0.51, 95% CI 0.32-0.80) were predictors of reduced risk.CONCLUSIONS: Unsuccessful treatment was higher among HIV patients with MDR-TB than among HIV-negative patients. Prompt initiation of ART and effective interventions are necessary to improve treatment adherence and prevent retreatment cases.