Treatment outcomes of children and adolescents receiving drug-resistant TB treatment in a routine TB programme, Mumbai, India

PLoS One. 2021 Feb 18;16(2):e0246639. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0246639. eCollection 2021.


BACKGROUND: Childhood and adolescent drug-resistant TB (DR-TB) is one of the neglected infectious diseases. Limited evidence exists around programmatic outcomes of children and adolescents receiving DR-TB treatment. The study aimed to determine the final treatment outcomes, culture conversion rates and factors associated with unsuccessful treatment outcome in children and adolescents with DR-TB.

METHODS: This is a descriptive study including children (0-9 years) and adolescents (10-19 years) with DR-TB were who were initiated on ambulatory based treatment between January 2017-June 2018 in Shatabdi hospital, Mumbai, India where National TB elimination programme(NTEP) Mumbai collaborates with chest physicians and Médecins Sans Frontières(MSF) in providing comprehensive care to DR-TB patients. The patients with available end-of-treatment outcomes were included. The data was censored on February 2020.

RESULT: A total of 268 patients were included; 16 (6%) of them were children (0-9 years). The median(min-max) age was 17(4-19) years and 192 (72%) were females. Majority (199, 74%) had pulmonary TB. Most (58%) had MDR-TB while 42% had fluoroquinolone-resistant TB. The median(IQR) duration of treatment (n = 239) was 24(10-25) months. Median(IQR) time for culture-conversion (n = 128) was 3(3-4) months. Of 268 patients, 166(62%) had successful end-of-treatment outcomes (cured-112; completed treatment-54). Children below 10 years had higher proportion of successful treatment outcomes (94% versus 60%) compared to adolescents. Patients with undernutrition [adjusted odds-ratio, aOR (95% Confidence Interval, 95%CI): 2.5 (1.3-4.8) or those with XDR-TB [aOR (95% CI): 4.3 (1.3-13.8)] had higher likelihood of having unsuccessful DR-TB treatment outcome.

CONCLUSION: High proportion of successful treatment outcome was reported, better than global reports. Further, the nutritional support and routine treatment follow up should be strengthened. All oral short and long regimens including systematic use of new TB drugs (Bedaquiline and Delamanid) should be rapidly scaled up in routine TB programme, especially for the paediatric and adolescent population.

PMID:33600431 | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0246639