Update on Candida krusei, a potential multidrug-resistant pathogen.
Med Mycol. 2020 May 13;:
Authors: Jamiu AT, Albertyn J, Sebolai OM, Pohl CH
Although Candida albicans remains the main cause of candidiasis, in recent years a significant number of infections has been attributed to non-albicans Candida (NAC) species, including Candida krusei. This epidemiological change can be partly explained by the increased resistance of NAC species to antifungal drugs. C. krusei is a diploid, dimorphic ascomycetous yeast that inhabits the mucosal membrane of healthy individuals. However, this yeast can cause life-threatening infections in immunocompromised patients, with hematologic malignancy patients and those using prolonged azole prophylaxis being at higher risk. Fungal infections are usually treated with five major classes of antifungal agents which include azoles, echinocandins, polyenes, allylamines, and nucleoside analogues. Fluconazole, an azole, is the most commonly used antifungal drug due to its low host toxicity, high water solubility, and high bioavailability. However, C. krusei possesses intrinsic resistance to this drug while also rapidly developing acquired resistance to other antifungal drugs. The mechanisms of antifungal resistance of this yeast involve the alteration and overexpression of drug target, reduction in intracellular drug concentration and development of a bypass pathway. Antifungal resistance menace coupled with the paucity of the antifungal arsenal as well as challenges involved in antifungal drug development, partly due to the eukaryotic nature of both fungi and humans, have left researchers to exploit alternative therapies. Here we briefly review our current knowledge of the biology, pathophysiology and epidemiology of a potential multidrug-resistant fungal pathogen, C. krusei, while also discussing the mechanisms of drug resistance of Candida species and alternative therapeutic approaches.
PMID: 32400853 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]