Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2021 Apr 23:zxab175. doi: 10.1093/ajhp/zxab175. Online ahead of print.
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PURPOSE: To evaluate the impact of a urinary tract infection (UTI) pocket card on preferred antibiotic prescribing for patients discharged from the emergency department (ED) with a diagnosis of cystitis.
METHODS: A multicenter, retrospective, pre-post study was conducted to compare outcomes following the introduction of a UTI pocket card. The primary outcome was prescribing rates for institutional first-line preferred antibiotics (cephalexin and nitrofurantoin) versus other antimicrobials for cystitis. Secondary outcomes included prescriber adherence to recommended therapy in regards to discharge dose, frequency, duration, and healthcare utilization rates.
RESULTS: The study included 915 patients in total, 407 in the preintervention group and 508 in the postintervention group. The frequency of preferred antibiotic prescribing was significantly increased after the introduction of a UTI pocket card compared to prior to its introduction (81.7% vs 72.0%, P = 0.001). Significant increases in prescribing of an appropriate antibiotic dose (78.0% vs 66.8%, P < 0.0001) and frequency (64.2% vs 47.4%, P < 0.0001) were also found post intervention. No significant differences were seen between the pre- and postintervention groups with regards to healthcare utilization rates.
CONCLUSION: A UTI pocket card increased preferred antibiotic prescribing for cystitis in the ED. This study provides data on a successful antimicrobial stewardship intervention in the ED setting.