Vaginal discharge during pregnancy and associated adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes

Pak J Med Sci. 2021 Sep-Oct;37(5):1302-1308. doi: 10.12669/pjms.37.5.4187.


OBJECTIVES: To observe the effects of vaginal discharge during pregnancy on maternal and fetal outcomes.

METHODS: This observational study was undertaken form June 2018 to 31 May 2019 period in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology at Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences hospital Jamshoro Unit IV. Data were collected from a convenience sample of 85 pregnant women. All the pregnant women with vaginal discharge were included in the study, while the women with bleeding and other medical disorders during pregnancy were excluded. Data was analyzed.

RESULTS: Women's mean age as 27.4 (±4.7) years and most were 28-35 weeks pregnant (n=29, 34%) and primigravida (n=35, 41%). Seventy six women (89%) presented with vaginal discharge while nine women (11%) reported no vaginal discharge. Of those with vaginal discharge,53 women (69.7%) had vaginal infections: bacterial vaginosis (n=21, 39.6%), vaginal candidiasis (n=17, 32.1%) and vaginal trichomoniasis (n=15, 28.3%). Pathological vaginal discharge (PVD) was associated with vaginal irritation (n=30, p<0.0001), vaginal pain (n=50, p<0.0001), fever (n=12, p=0.015), uterine contractions (n=31, p<0.0001), premature membrane rupture (n=29, p<0.0001), abortion (n=13, p=0.009), pre-term delivery (n=24, p<0.0001) and post-partum endometritis (n=19, p=0.0006). PVD was associated with neonatal outcomes i.e. low birth weight (n=24, p<0.0001), low Apgar score at birth (n=22, p=0.0001), neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (n=21, p=0.0002), neonatal intensive care hospitalisation (n=20, p=0.002) and early neonatal death (n=16, p=0.003).

CONCLUSION: Pathological vaginal discharge (PVD) during pregnancy is more frequent and is associated with adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes.

PMID:34475902 | PMC:PMC8377920 | DOI:10.12669/pjms.37.5.4187