Vancomycin plus piperacillin/tazobactam and acute kidney injury risk: A review of the literature.

Vancomycin plus piperacillin/tazobactam and acute kidney injury risk: A review of the literature.

J Clin Pharm Ther. 2020 Aug 18;:

Authors: Covert KL, Knoetze D, Cole M, Lewis P

Abstract
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Acute kidney injury is a devastating consequence observed with antibiotic therapy. The objective of this review was to summarize available data regarding the rates of acute kidney injury with vancomycin plus piperacillin/tazobactam compared to other beta-lactam combinations.
METHODS: A PubMed search from 2011 to May 2020 was conducted using the following search terms: vancomycin AND piperacillin/tazobactam AND acute kidney injury. Additional references were identified from a review of citations. Articles evaluating exclusively paediatric patients and articles evaluating vancomycin monotherapy as the comparator group were excluded. Case reports and case series were also excluded.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: There were 18 studies included. Ten studies adjusted for potential confounders of acute kidney injury. Fourteen retrospective studies, one prospective study and three meta-analyses found the combination of vancomycin/piperacillin/tazobactam to be associated with a higher rate of acute kidney injury than the comparator group(s).
WHAT IS NEW AND CONCLUSION: Although there are data to support that the combination of vancomycin plus piperacillin-tazobactam increases the risk of acute kidney, much of the data come from small retrospective studies with variable adjustment for confounders. Furthermore, study heterogeneity on inclusion criteria and evaluation of long-term outcomes should be cautiously interpreted. Finally, additional data suggest that the risk of acute kidney injury seems to be minimized with shorter courses of therapy. Without prospective studies available, antimicrobial stewardship efforts should continue to target reducing broad-spectrum regimens, often limiting the need for long-term vancomycin/piperacillin/tazobactam combination.

PMID: 32810312 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]