Vancomycin-resistant enterococcal bacteremia pharmacotherapy.

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Vancomycin-resistant enterococcal bacteremia pharmacotherapy.

Ann Pharmacother. 2015 Jan;49(1):69-85

Authors: Patel R, Gallagher JC

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To review the literature on the pharmacotherapy of bloodstream infections (BSI) caused by vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE).
DATA SOURCES: A MEDLINE literature search was performed for the period 1946 to May 2014 using the search terms Enterococcus, enterococci, vancomycin-resistant, VRE, bacteremia, and bloodstream infection. References were also identified from selected review articles.
STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: English-language case series, cohort studies, and meta-analyses assessing the options in the pharmacotherapy of VRE BSIs in adult patients were evaluated.
DATA SYNTHESIS: Studies were identified that utilized linezolid, quinupristin/dalfopristin (Q/D), and daptomycin. In all, 8 comparative retrospective cohort studies, 2 meta-analyses of daptomycin and linezolid, and 3 retrospective comparisons of linezolid and Q/D were included for review. Mortality associated with VRE BSIs was high across studies, and the ability to determine differences in outcomes between agents was confounded by the complex nature of the patients included. Two meta-analyses comparing daptomycin with linezolid for VRE BSIs found modest advantages for linezolid, but these conclusions may be hampered by heterogeneity within the included studies.
CONCLUSIONS: VRE BSIs remain a difficult-to-treat clinical situation. Differences in toxicity between the agents used to treat it are clear, but therapeutic differences are more difficult to discern. Meta-analyses suggest that a moderate advantage for linezolid over daptomycin may exist, but problems with the nature of studies that they included make definitive conclusions difficult.

PMID: 25352037 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]