PLoS One. 2021 Apr 8;16(4):e0249823. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0249823. eCollection 2021.
BACKGROUND: Vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) and vancomycin resistance coagulase negative staphylococci (VRCoNS) are common pathogens causing difficult to treat health care associated infections (HAI). Hence, the World Health Organization listed VRE as one of the high priority pathogens for new antibiotic discovery and antimicrobial resistance surveillance. Despite this, data on the prevalence of VRE and VRCoNS in Ethiopia is scarce. Thus, the present study determined prevalence of VRE and VRCoNS among patients attending Felege-Hiwot comprehensive specialized hospital, Ethiopia.
METHODS: A hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted on 384 patients selected conveniently from February to March 2020. Data on demographic and clinical variables were collected using a structured questionnaire by face-to-face interview. Simultaneously urine, venous blood and wound swab were collected and processed following standard bacteriological technique. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed by minimum inhibitory concentration method using E-test for vancomycin and Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method for other classes of antibiotics. Data was entered and analyzed using SPSS version 23. Logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with VRE infection. P. value < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant.
RESULTS: The prevalence of enterococci and CoNS were 6.8% and 12% respectively. The prevalence of VRE was 34.61% (9/26), while all CoNS (46 isolates) were susceptible to vancomycin. The majority (66.7%) of VRE was isolated from blood samples. Furthermore all VRE (100%), 58.8% of vancomycin susceptible enterococci and 45.7% of CoNS were multidrug resistant (MDR). Having educational level of secondary school and below (AOR = 12.80, CI = 1.149-142.5), previous exposure to catheterization (AOR = 56.0, CI = 4.331-724.0) and previous antibiotic use practice (AOR = 26.25, CI = 3.041-226.2) were a significant associated explanatory factor for VRE infection.
CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of vancomycin resistance enterococci, which is also multidrug resistant, was significantly high. Though no vancomycin resistance CoNS detected, the MDR level of CoNS was high. Thus to limit enterococci and CoNS infections and MDR development, focused infection prevention measures should be implemented.