Ventilator-associated pneumonia in patients on prolonged mechanical ventilation: description, risk factors for mortality, and performance of the SOFA score

J Bras Pneumol. 2021 Jun 23;47(3):e20200569. doi: 10.36416/1806-3756/e20200569. eCollection 2021.


OBJECTIVE: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a serious complication of mechanical ventilation (MV). However, data on VAP in patients on prolonged MV (PMV) are scarce. We aimed to describe the characteristics of VAP patients on PMV and to identify factors associated with mortality.

METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study including VAP patients on PMV. We recorded baseline characteristics, as well as 30-day and 90-day mortality rates. Variables associated with mortality were determined by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox regression model.

RESULTS: We identified 80 episodes of VAP in 62 subjects on PMV. The medians for age, Charlson Comorbidity Index, SOFA score, and days on MV were, respectively, 69.5 years, 5, 4, and 56 days. Episodes of VAP occurred between days 21 and 50 of MV in 28 patients (45.2%) and, by day 90 of MV, in 48 patients (77.4%). The 30-day and 90-day mortality rates were 30.0% and 63.7%, respectively. There were associations of 30-day mortality with the SOFA score (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.30; 95% CI: 1.12-1.52; p < 0.001) and use of vasoactive agents (HR = 4.0; 95% CI: 1.2-12.9; p = 0.02), whereas 90-day mortality was associated with age (HR = 1.03; 95% CI: 1.00-1.05; p = 0.003), SOFA score (HR = 1.20; 95% CI: 1.07-1.34; p = 0.001), use of vasoactive agents (HR = 4.07; 95% CI: 1.93-8.55; p < 0.001), and COPD (HR = 3.35; 95% CI: 1.71-6.60; p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS: Mortality rates in VAP patients on PMV are considerably high. The onset of VAP can occur various days after MV initiation. The SOFA score is useful for predicting fatal outcomes. The factors associated with mortality could help guide therapeutic decisions and determine prognosis.

PMID:34190861 | DOI:10.36416/1806-3756/e20200569