World J Crit Care Med. 2020 Aug 7;9(3):43-53. doi: 10.5492/wjccm.v9.i3.43. eCollection 2020 Aug 7.
BACKGROUND: Patients with cancer have several risk factors for developing respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation (MV). The emergence of multidrug resistant bacteria (MDRB) has become a public health problem, creating a new burden on medical care in hospitals, particularly for patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU).
AIM: To describe risk factors for ventilator-acquired pneumonia (VAP) in patients with cancer and to evaluate the impact of MDRB.
METHODS: A retrospective study was performed from January 2016 to December 2018 at a cancer referral center in Mexico City, which included all patients who were admitted to the ICU and required MV ≥ 48 h. They were classified as those who developed VAP versus those who did not; pathogens isolated, including MDRB. Clinical evolution at 60-d was assessed. Descriptive analysis was carried out; comparison was performed between VAP vs non-VAP and MDRB vs non-MDRB.
RESULTS: Two hundred sixty-three patients were included in the study; mean age was 51.9 years; 52.1% were male; 68.4% had solid tumors. There were 32 episodes of VAP with a rate of 12.2%; 11.5 episodes/1000 ventilation-days. The most frequent bacteria isolated were the following: Klebsiella spp. [n = 9, four were Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL) producers, one was Carbapenem-resistant (CR)]; Escherichia coli (n = 5, one was ESBL), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 8, two were CR). One Methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus was identified. In multivariate analysis, the sole risk factor associated for VAP was length of ICU stay (OR = 1.1; 95%CI: 1.03-1.17; P = 0.003). Sixty-day mortality was 53% in VAP and 43% without VAP (P = 0.342). There was not higher mortality in those patients with MDRB.
CONCLUSION: This study highlights the high percentage of Gram-negative bacteria, which allows the initiation of empiric antibiotic coverage for these pathogens. In this retrospective, single center, observational study, MDRB VAP was not directly linked to increased mortality at 60 days.