JAC Antimicrob Resist. 2020 Oct 22;2(4):dlaa084. doi: 10.1093/jacamr/dlaa084. eCollection 2020 Dec.
OBJECTIVES: To analyse by WGS the ceftolozane/tazobactam (C/T) resistance mechanisms in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. isolates recovered from complicated intra-abdominal and urinary tract infections in patients from Spanish ICUs (SUPERIOR surveillance study, 2016-17).
METHODS: The clonal relatedness, the resistome and the virulome of 45 E. coli and 43 Klebsiella spp. isolates with different C/T susceptibility profiles were characterized.
RESULTS: In E. coli, two (C/T susceptible) carbapenemase producers (VIM-2-CC23, OXA-48-ST38) were detected. The most relevant clone was ST131-B2-O25:H4-H30 (17/45), particularly the CTX-M-15-ST131-H30-Rx sublineage (15/17). ST131 strains were mainly C/T susceptible (15/17) and showed an extensive virulome. In non-ST131 strains (28/45), CTX-M enzymes [CTX-M-14 (8/24); CTX-M-15 (6/24); CTX-M-1 (3/24); CTX-M-32 (2/24)] were found in different clones. C/T resistance was detected in non-clonal E. coli isolates (13%, 6/45) with ESBL (4/6) and non-ESBL (2/6) genotypes. Among Klebsiella spp., Klebsiella pneumoniae (42/43) and Klebsiella michiganensis (1/43) species were identified; 42% (18/43) were carbapenemase producers and 58% showed a C/T resistance phenotype (25/43). OXA-48-ST11 (12/18), OXA-48-ST392 (2/18), OXA-48-ST15 (2/18), NDM-1-ST101 (1/18) and OXA-48+VIM-2-ST15 (1/18) isolates were found, all C/T resistant. Correlation between carbapenemase detection and resistance to C/T was demonstrated (P < 0.001). In non-carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae (25/43), C/T resistance (28%, 7/25) was detected in ESBL (3/7) and AmpC (2/7) producers. Overall, an extensive virulome was found and was correlated with carbapenemase carriage (P < 0.001) and C/T resistance (P < 0.05), particularly in OXA-48-ST11 strains (P < 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: Prediction of antimicrobial susceptibility profiles using WGS is challenging. Carbapenemase-encoding genes are associated with C/T resistance in K. pneumoniae, but other resistance mechanisms might be additionally involved.